Binary relations, n-ary relations, closures of relations, equivalence relations, partial ordering, application to relational databases.

- Use the inclusion-exclusion principle for set analysis.
- Identify relations as reflexive, symmetric, antisymmetric, or transitive.
- Identify n-ary relationships and primary keys.
- Use projection and join operators.
- Compute reflexive, symmetric, and transitive closures.
- Determine equivalence relations.